Explain The Munich Agreement

Czechoslovakia was informed by Great Britain and France that it could either oppose Nazi Germany or submit to the prescribed annexes. The Czechoslovakian government single-purposely acknowledged the desperation of the fight against the Nazis, reluctantly capitulated (30 September) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany, from 10 October, the Sudetenland and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On 30 September, after some time off, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler`s interpreter translated it for him, he was glad to have accepted it. 29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement by which Czechoslovakia must cede its border and defensive regions (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. In December 1938, the Sudetenland was the pro-Nazi region of the Empire, with half a million Sudeten Germans members. Daladier was convinced that the agreement did not appease the Nazis and that disaster would still happen, while Chamberlain thought there was cause for celebration, mistakenly convinced that he had achieved peace. The day after the signing of the agreement, Germany took control of the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovakians did not take retaliatory measures. On March 15, 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.

The day before, Slovakia had become an autonomous state of Nazi puppets. Many Sudeten Germans acquired jobs in the protectorate or as Gestapo agents because they spoke fluent Czech. Northern Rhine, in the hope of independence, was taken over by Hungary. As the threats to Germany and the European war have become increasingly evident, opinions have changed. Chamberlain was awarded for his role as one of the “Men of Munich” in books such as the Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defence of the wartime accord came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been the Lord`s chancellor. Maugham regarded the decision to establish a Czechoslovakian state with large German and Hungarian minorities as a “dangerous experiment” in the face of previous disputes and described the agreement, which stemmed mainly from the need for France to free itself from its contractual obligations in the face of its vagueness to war. [63] After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of that time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement of Hitler had been wrong in Munich, and noted Churchill`s pre-war warnings about Hitler`s plan of attack and Britain`s folly of disarmament after Germany reached air parity with Britain.

While acknowledging that Chamberlain was acting for noble reasons, Churchill argued that Hitler should have resisted in Czechoslovakia and that efforts had to be made to involve the Soviet Union. The agreement was widely welcomed.

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